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Gestational diabetes mellitus: sugary cola drinks linked to higher risk


Researchers from Louisiana State University ( LSU ) Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Public Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( NICHD ), Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, have found for the first time that drinking more than 5 servings of sugar- sweetened cola a week prior to pregnancy appears to significantly elevate the risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy.

The research team studied a group of 13,475 women from the Nurses' Health Study II. During 10 years of follow-up, 860 incident gestational diabetes mellitus cases were identified.
After adjustment for known risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus including age, family history of diabetes, parity, physical activity, smoking status, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, alcohol intake, prepregnancy body mass index ( BMI ), and Western dietary pattern, intake of sugar-sweetened cola was positively associated with the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. No significant association was found for other sugar-sweetened beverages or diet beverages.

Compared with women who consumed less than 1 serving per month, those who consumed more than 5 servings per week of sugar-sweetened cola had a 22% greater gestational diabetes mellitus risk.

Gestational diabetes mellitus, defined as glucose intolerance beginning during pregnancy, is one of the most common pregnancy complications. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for complications and illness during pregnancy and delivery, as well as post-pregnancy type 2 diabetes. Children of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for obesity, glucose intolerance, and early onset diabetes.

Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, available evidence suggests that the main defect in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus is relatively diminished insulin secretion coupled with pregnancy-induced insulin resistance.

Consuming a large amount of sugar-sweetened beverages could contribute to a high glycemic load by providing a large amount of rapidly absorbable sugars. High-glycemic load foods induce a greater plasma glucose response after eating which can result in insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function. In addition, higher sugar intake itself may lead to impaired pancreatic cell function.

Previous studies in children and adults have shown that regular consumption of sugary drinks is associated with excess caloric intake, greater weight gain, and increased risk of obesity. Sugary drinks have also been linked to type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

This is the first study on the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on gestational diabetes mellitus risk. This finding is important because sugar-sweetened beverages are the leading source of added sugars in the American diet, particularly in the age group most likely to conceive. Cutting down sugary drinks is clearly an important way to reduce this common pregnancy complication.

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2001, from 1977 to 2001, soft drink intake increased from 4.1% to 9.8% for 19- to 39-year-olds. In percentage terms, soft drink intake was highest among this age group in comparison to other ages. ( Xagena )

Source: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2009

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